It is usually performed when vaginal birth might pose risks to the mother, the baby, or both. C-sections can be planned in advance due to medical reasons or unforeseen during labor if complications arise. Common indications include fetal distress, placenta previa, breech presentation, multiple pregnancies, or medical conditions in the mother that could make vaginal delivery unsafe. The procedure involves anesthesia, typically epidural or spinal, to numb the lower half of the body. The surgeon makes an incision, delivers the baby, and then closes the incisions carefully. Recovery time can vary, with postoperative care focusing on pain management, wound healing, and preventing infection. While C-sections can be life-saving, they carry potential risks and should be discussed thoroughly between the healthcare provider and the expectant parent.